Background: The detection of special bacterial species in patients with periodontitis is considered to be useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The collection of subgingival plaque samples is the common way for the determination of periodontopathic bacteria. However, recently, salivary analysis has been discussed as an advantageous future diagnostic method for periodontitis because it offers simple quantitative sampling and the possibility to assess various bacteria. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate whether there is a correlation between the results of different bacterial species in saliva and subgingival plaque samples from individuals with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP).
Methods: Whole saliva and subgingival plaque samples from the deepest pocket of each quadrant were collected from 43 patients with CP and 33 patients with AgP. Twenty different bacterial species from both samplings were determined by the 16S ribosomal RNA-based polymerase chain reaction with microarray technique.
Results: All bacterial species were detected in salivary and subgingival plaque samples. For Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, as well as Actinomyces viscosus, Campylobacter rectus/showae, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, Eubacterium nodatum, and Campylobacter gracilis, a significant positive correlation between salivary and subgingival plaque samples was detected in patients with both types of periodontitis. There were no significant differences in bacteria in salivary and subgingival plaque samples between AgP and CP.
Conclusion: Salivary analysis might be discussed as a potential alternative to subgingival plaque sampling for microbiologic analysis in both AgP and CP.