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Oral bacteria, oral health, and adverse pregnancy outcomes

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders that affect tissues surrounding the tooth. Generally, periodontal disease can be classified into two stages based on the severity: gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is a mild form characterized by inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding a tooth or the gingiva, while periodontitis is a more severe form characterized by destruction of supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, bone, cementum, and soft tissues. Despite its effect on tooth-supporting tissues, periodontal disease is also suggested to have a cause-and-effect relationship with various systemic diseases, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes. Since the first report indicating periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for preterm birth in 1996, numerous studies have suggested the link between oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes


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