“Chronic” periodontitis and its keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have repeatedly been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Pathological hallmarks in AD are brain accumulations of amyloid-beta and neurofibrillary tangles consisting of aggregated and hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition, neuroinflammation induced by P. gingivalis has increasingly been recognized as a factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The present mini-review discusses possible mechanisms for the induction of neuroinflammation by P. gingivalis in AD, involving factors such as pro-inflammatory mediators, amyloid-beta, tau, microglia, cathepsin B, and protein kinase R. Inflammagens of P. gingivalis such as lipopolysaccharide and gingipains are also discussed.
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