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The Periodontopathic Pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Involves a Gut Inflammatory Response

Exacerbates Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent disorders globally and is strongly associated with many other diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an inflammatory condition of the colon and the small intestine, is reported to be associated with PD through undetermined mechanisms. We analyzed taxonomic assignment files from the Crohn’s Disease Viral and Microbial Metagenome Project (PRJEB3206). The abundance of Porphyromonadaceae in fecal samples was significantly different between patients with Crohn’s disease and control volunteers. Dextran sulfate sodium was used to induce colitis in mice to reveal the effect of this periodontopathic pathogen in vivo. After intrarectal implantation of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg)—the primary pathogen causing PD—the disease activity index score, colonic epithelial loss, and inflammatory cell infiltration were intensified. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-α andinterleukin-6 showed the highest levels in Pg-infected colons. This revealed the importance of Pg in the exacerbation of IBD. Thus, simultaneous treatment of PD should be considered for people with IBD. Moreover, implantation of Pg in the rectum worsened the clinical symptoms of colitis in mice. Because Pg participates in the pathogenesis of IBD, reducing the chances of it entering the intestine might prevent the worsening of this disorder.

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