Periodontitis, which may result in tooth loss, constitutes both a serious medical and social problem. This pathology, if not treated, can contribute to the development of, among others, pancreatic cancer, cardiovascular diseases or Alzheimer’s disease. The available treatment methods are expensive but not always fully effective. For this reason, the search for and isolation of bacteriophages specific to bacterial strains causing periodontitis seems to be a great opportunity to target persistent colonization by bacterial pathogens and lower the use of antibiotics consequently limiting further development of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) constitutes a growing challenge in periodontal therapy as resistant pathogens may be isolated from more than 70% of patients with periodontitis.
The aim of this review is to present the perspective of phage application in the prevention and/or treatment of periodontitis alongside its complicated multifactorial aetiology and emphasize the challenges connecting composition and application of effective phage preparation.