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Effects of Antibiotics upon the Gut Microbiome: A Review of the Literature

The human gastrointestinal tract carries a large number of microorganisms associated with complex metabolic processes and interactions. Although antibiotic treatment is crucial for combating infections, its negative effects on the intestinal microbiota and host immunity have been shown to be of the utmost importance. Multiple studies have recognized the adverse consequences of antibiotic use upon the gut microbiome in adults and neonates, causing dysbiosis of the microbiota. Repeated antibiotic treatments in clinical care or low-dosage intake from food could be contributing factors in this issue. Researchers in both human and animal studies have strived to explain this multifaceted relationship. The present review intends to elucidate the axis of the gastrointestinal microbiota and antibiotics resistance and to highlight the main aspects of the issue.

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