Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is an inflammatory disease of the coronary
arteries associated with atheroma formation, which can cause disability and often death.
Periodontitis is ranked as the sixth most prevalent disease affecting humans affecting
740 million people worldwide. In the last few decades, researchers have focused on the
effect of periodontal disease (PD) on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this review was to
investigate the association between these two diseases. PD is a potential risk factor that
may initiate the development, maturation, and instability of atheroma in the arteries. Two
mechanisms were proposed to explain such association, either periodontal pathogens
directly invade bloodstream or indirectly by increasing systemic level of inflammatory
mediators. Interestingly, it has been suggested that improvement in the condition of one
disease positively impact the condition of the other one. Highlighting the association
between these two diseases, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of PD and
its impact on cardiovascular status may be of great value in reducing the complications
associated with ACVDs. Further in vitro and in vivo studies with longer follow up are
necessary to confirm the causal relationship between PD and ACVDs.