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Periodontal Inflammation and Systemic Diseases: An Overview

Periodontal disease (PD) is a general term encompassing a group of inflammatory pathologies that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. It is particularly pervasive in adults (Bui et al., 2019; de Molon et al., 2019), though, is not uncommon in children (Alrayyes and Hart, 2011; Reis et al., 2021). Indeed, PD is an often all-encompassing-term used to refer to any of the wide spectrum of inflammatory diseases able to affect the periodontium. The periodontium being itself an umbrella term, that comprises a number of different structures supporting the teeth: gingiva, cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone (Kinane et al., 2017). PD is often initiated by an uncontrolled inflammatory response to a slow and constant bacterial colonization of the tooth surface and soft gingival tissues—Gingivitis (Graves, 2008), but it is the host inflammatory response to the microbial challenge that is responsible for the degradation of the periodontium—i.e., Periodontitis (Balta et al., 2017).

periodontal inflammation
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