Periodontal disease (PD) is a complex and infectious illness that begins with a disruption of bacterial homeostasis. This disease induces a host inflammatory response, leading to damage of the soft and connective tooth-supporting tissues. Moreover, in advanced cases, it can contribute to tooth loss. The aetiological factors of PDs have been widely researched, but the pathogenesis of PD has still not been totally clarified. There are a number of factors that have an effect on the aetiology and pathogenesis of PD. It is purported that microbiological, genetic susceptibility and lifestyle can determine the development and severity of the disease. The human body’s defence response to the accumulation of plaque and its enzymes is known to be a major factor for PD. The oral cavity is colonised by a characteristic and complex microbiota that grows as diverse biofilms on all mucosal and dental surfaces. The aim of this review was to provide the latest updates in the literature regarding still-existing problems with PD and to highlight the role of the oral microbiome in periodontal health and disease. Better awareness and knowledge of the causes of dysbiosis, environmental risk factors and periodontal therapy can reduce the growing worldwide prevalence of PDs. The promotion of good oral hygiene, limiting smoking, alcohol consumption and exposure to stress and comprehensive treatment to decrease the pathogenicity of oral biofilm can help reduce PD as well as other diseases. Evidence linking disorders of the oral microbiome to various systemic diseases has increased the understanding of the importance of the oral microbiome in regulating many processes in the human body and, thus, its impact on the development of many diseases.
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